Adopted by the 49th WMA General Assembly, Hamburg, Germany, November 1997
reaffirmed by the 58th WMA General Assembly, Copenhagen, Denmark, October 2007,
reaffirmed with minor revisions by the 207th WMA Council Session, Chicago, United States, October 2017, and by the 220th WMA Council Session, Paris, France, April 2022
all people have the right to the preservation of health; and,
the Geneva Convention (Article 23, Number IV, 1949) requires the free passage of medical supplies intended for civilians;
Recalling the standards of international human rights law, specifically the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights guarantees in its article 12 “the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health”;
The WMA urges national medical associations to ensure that Governments employing economic sanctions against other States respect the agreed exemptions for medicines, medical supplies and basic food items. Exemptions should not be exploited for inappropriate purposes.