The Declaration of Geneva is one of the World Medical Association’s (WMA) oldest policies adopted by the 2nd General Assembly in Geneva in 1948. It builds on the principles of the Hippocratic Oath, and is now known as its modern version.
It also remains one of the most consistent documents of the WMA. With only very few and careful revisions over many decades, it safeguards the ethical principles of the medical profession, relatively uninfluenced by zeitgeist and modernism.
The Oath should not be read alone, but in parallel with the more specific and detailed policies of the WMA especially the International Code of Medical Ethics, which followed the Declaration of Geneva as early as 1948.
*Previous archived versions below are for research purpose only.
- Declaration of Geneva – version 1948
- Declaration of Geneva – version 1968
- Declaration of Geneva – version 1983
- Declaration of Geneva – version 1994
- Declaration of Geneva – version 2005
- Declaration of Geneva – version 2006
*For the versions in other languages, please see “WMA Policy Resources” on the right side.