Declaration of Helsinki
The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is the WMA's best-known policy statement. The first version was adopted in 1964 and has been amended seven times since, most recently at the General Assembly in October 2013. The current (2013) version is the only official one; all previous versions have been replaced and should not be used or cited except for historical purposes.The WMA thanks all those who submitted comments and suggestions for the most recent (2012-2013) revision of the DoH.
The new version is published on the website of the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA).
Some useful references:
- Human D, Fluss SS. The World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (References)
- The International Response to Helsinki VI - The WMA's Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, as adopted by the 52nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, October 2000
- De Roy PG. Helsinki and the Declaration of Helsinki. World Med J 2004; 50/1: 9-11
- Benatar SR. Linking Moral Progress to Medical Progress: New opportunities for the Declaration of Helsinki. World Med J 2004; 50/1: 11-13
- Williams JR. The Promise and Limits of International Bioethics: Lessons from the Recent Revision of the Declaration of Helsinki. Int J Bioethics 2004; 15: 31-42
- Carlson RV, Boyd KM, Webb DJ. The revision of the Declaration of Helsinki: past, present and future. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 57: 695-713
- Nuffield Council on Bioethics: The ethics of research related to healthcare in developing countries - a follow-up Discussion Paper, London, Nuffield Council, 2005
- Williams JR. The Physician's Role in the Protection of Human Research Subjects. Science and Engineering Ethics 2006; 12: 5-12
- Carlson RV, van Ginneken NH, Pettigrew LM, Davies A, Boyd KM, Webb DJ. The three official language versions of the Declaration of Helsinki: what's lost in translation? J Med Ethics 2007; 33: 545-548
- Schmidt U, Frewer A, eds. History and Theory of Human Experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki and Modern Medical Ethics, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2007
- Williams JR. The Declaration of Helsinki and public health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2008; 86: 650-651